Check Your Tires
Tires are a biggie. They are your only point of contact with the road. They are very important for your safety, which is why any inspector worth their salt will pay attention to your tires even if they look at nothing else. Dry-rot cracking and excessive wear will mean failing the inspection. Take a look at your tires, find the wear bars, and make sure the tread is plenty deep. If they're old and cracking, replace them.
Inspect Your Brakes
You'll want to make sure your brake pads have plenty of meat left on them. The layer of friction material usually has a groove in it, and when the material wears away and the groove disappears it is time to replace your brake pads. It's a good idea to inspect your brakes periodically even if you don't need to have your bike officially inspected. How dark is your brake fluid? When was the last time you changed it? Are your brake lines looking old and cracked? How thin is your brake rotor? Do yourself a favor and don't put off that brake maintenance any longer. It will make your bike work better and help you get that sticker.
Make Sure All Your Lights Work
Just like the Motorcycle Safety Foundation tells you to do before a ride, give your bike a walk-around and note that the "L" in T-CLOCS is for your lights. Turn your key on and make sure the headlight works. High beam? All four blinkers? Now actuate the front brake lever and rear brake pedal and be sure they each independently light up your brake light. Even the most cursory of inspectors will walk around your bike and make sure all those work. If they don't, no sticker for you.
Test Your Horn
This goes right along with all your lights and turn signals. If your horn doesn't work, you will not pass inspection. Have you done any recent work to your bike, maybe accidentally unplugged your horn? Now is the time to check it and make sure it makes enough noise to make the inspector happy.
Make Sure Your Final Drive Is In Good Shape
Yeah, that goes for all final drives. Chains are the most common: is your chain rusty, too loose, too tight, or worn out and rattly? Are your sprockets worn? If your bike is shaft-driven, is that shaft leaking anything or making any off-putting noises? When was the last time you refreshed the gear oil in there? Is your belt tension correct, and is the belt itself cracked or worn?
These are all things that need attention, and not just to get a sticker. A broken chain is a hell of a way to end a ride, and you'd better hope when it breaks it ends up on the road behind you instead of wadded up at your counter-shaft sprocket or having smashed a hole in your engine case on its way out.
How Loud Are You?
Yeah, I know you love loud pipes, but unless your inspector owes you a favor, if you roar in there with shotgun pipes deafening all the mechanics, you're not going to pass. If your pipes say "OFFROAD USE ONLY" you might have a problem. So if you're a "Loud Pipes Save Lives" disciple, you might want to hang onto your stockers and do a little work before the inspection. That's more work than I'm willing to do, and I'm not going to argue your religion with you, but please keep the aural health of those you ride near, in mind.
Is Your Bike Leaking Anything?
You'll want to make sure you fix any leaks. This can be a biggie for passing inspection, especially if it is your final drive, your brakes, your fuel tank or lines, or your forks that are leaking. Leaky forks can soak your front brakes with fork oil, and that definitely will not pass inspection. It's also a very dangerous situation.
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